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freizeit
02/15/2020

Die Lust aufs Leben: Karneval in Rio, New Orleans, Venedig

Tanzen, sich schmücken – feiern, als gäb’s kein Morgen. Die "freizeit" besucht die drei legendären Karneval-Metropolen.

von Andreas Bovelino

Die Party aller Partys. Alle gut drauf, alle witziger, schöner, wagemutiger als normal – und alle feiern als gäb’s kein Morgen. Das funktioniert naturgemäß nicht jeden Tag, wäre wohl auch nicht sonderlich gesund. Aber manchmal MUSS es halt einfach so sein.

Genau darum geht’s im Fasching, im Karneval, dem Carnevale: Einmal so richtig über die Stränge schlagen, ohne Rücksicht auf ein Morgen, die Mama oder den großen Karriereplan. Cool. Prinzipiell. Wenn dem ganzen nicht oft der Duft nach Partykeller und Provinz anhaften würde, und erotischen Geheimnissen der Vorstadt, die ganz sicher besser geheim bleiben würden. 

Aber: Auch wenn man heimischem Lei-Lei-Spaß indifferent gegenübersteht und einem die deutschen Parolen wie „Alaf“ und „Helau“ zu schenkelklopfend daherkommen – der Fasching fernerer Länder übt doch eine ziemliche Faszination aus. Südamerika natürlich, die Karibik – und in den letzten Jahren immer stärker auch der faszinierende Karneval von New Orleans: „Mardi Gras“.

Das Beste aller Welten

Der „fette Dienstag“ ist eigentlich eine ureuropäische Erfindung, und dann auch wieder nicht, weil hier am Mississippi so viel mehr dazukommt,  so viel Geschichte, so viele Kulturen.  So viel Spaß. In der etwas anderen Metropole im tiefen Süden der USA vereint sich das beste aller Welten, wenn’s um unterschiedliche Faschingstraditionen geht.

Alte europäische Noblesse trifft  auf afrikanischen und karibischen Mystizismus, bodenständiger Freude an derben Zoten verbindet sich mit der melancholischen Weltläufigkeit von legendären Jazz- und Blues-Clubs. Es klingt wie ein Klischee und ist vielleicht auch eines, aber in New Orleans ist tatsächlich alles Musik. Und eine Stadt, die ihre Toten mit unwiderstehlichen Dixie-Jazz-Partys zu Grabe trägt, weiß auch,  wie die Lebenden am  besten feiern sollten. Im Jahr 1699 hat die erste „Dienstagsparty“ stattgefunden.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

Damals noch eine brave Angelegenheit, bei der die französische Nobilität ihre Töchter präsentierte. Aber ganz wie im verruchten Europa sollte die Möglichkeit, die eigene Identität hinter einer Maske zu verbergen, die biederen Bälle vor allem in sexueller Hinsicht bald entscheidend aufspicen. Wem schenkt die schöne unbekannte Dame ihre Gunst? Eine Frage die auch wesentlicher Bestandteil der erotischen venezianischen Komödie „Nuda di Donna“ mit der anbetungswürdigen Eleonora Giorgi ist. Und wohl die einzige Motivation war, die einen Giacomo Casanova dazu brachte, sich Faschingspartys überhaupt erst anzutun.

Zu dieser nicht ganz unfrivolen „Bäumchen wechsel dich“-Attitüde gesellten sich in New Orleans bald auch Traditionen der unfreiwilligen westafrikanischen Bevölkerung: Die Magie der Masken, Vodoo und Baron Samedi, traditioneller, farbenfroher Federschmuck und absolute Tanz-Ekstase. Als New Orleans schließlich amerikanisch wurde (1803), kam es zu einem unerwarteten Phänomen: Die prinzipiell eher verklemmten „Anglo-Amerikaner“, die sonst mit Karneval aber sowas von nichts am Hut hatten, fühlten sich quasi verpflichtet, mindestens so ausgelassen zu feiern wie die Franzosen. Wer schon mal Iren und Schotten tanzen gesehen hat, weiß, dass die das ernst meinen, wenn sie erst einmal anfangen. Und was „Zielwasser“ in Form whiskyhaltiger Getränke anbelangt, konnte den neuen Bewohnern der Stadt ohnehin niemand etwas vormachen. Es kam also zu einem faschingstechnischen Wettrüsten.

Exotische Faschingsgilden

Die ältesten „Gilden“ oder „Krewes“, wie es hier heißt, stammen tatsächlich noch aus dem 19. Jahrhundert. Und ja, so spießig man Faschingsvereine, Offiziere und Prinzen auch bei uns finden mag – genau sie sind es, die den prickelnden, exotischen, vibrierenden und höchst erotischen Karneval in New Orleans am Leben erhalten. Mittlerweile ist es sogar so, dass die Zahl der Gilden signifikant wächst, zu den jahrhundertealten Gruppen wie der Mystick Krewe of Comus oder dem Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club, die sowohl die Umzüge an Rosenmontag und Faschingsdienstag wie auch die abendlihen Partys organisieren, gesellten sich mittlerweile auch reine Frauen-Gilden und jede nur erdenkliche Form von LGBT-Spielarten. Dazu kommt noch die tatsächlich außergewöhnliche Gruppe der „Mardi Gras Indians“. Afroamerikaner „verkleiden“ sich als Indianer.

Und erinnern so an die Zeiten, wie sie als entlaufene Sklaven Zuflucht bei den Stämmen der Umgebung fanden.  Aber auch an die dunklen Stunden ihrer Vergangenheit, in denen sie gezwungen waren als „Buffalo Soldiers“ für die Deportation und Vernichtung  der Ureinwohner Amerikas zu sorgen.

Am Wochenende vor dem Faschingsdienstag wächst die knapp 400.000-Einwohnerstadt aufs Doppelte ihrer Größe an. Es wuselt also durchaus in den schmalen Gassen des legendären „French Quarters“, der Altstadt mit den wunderschönen schmiedeeisenen Balkonen. Mit toller Live-Musik ist man in New Orleans ohnehin das ganze Jahr gesegnet, klassische Verkleidungen sucht man im Straßenbild allerdings vergeblich. Nur, wer bei einem Umzug einer Gilde beteiligt ist, kostümiert sich, alle anderen – vor allem die vielen Touristen – zeigen sich höchstens ein wenig „wagemutiger“, was ihre Garderobe betrifft. Sexy heißt in dieser Beziehung das Motto des „Mardi Gras“.

Ab in den Süden!

Je weiter südlich man von New Orleans aus reist, desto „afrikanischer“ schlägt das Herz des Karnevals. Bis man in Rio de Janeiro den Beat der Sambatrommeln im ganzen Körper spürt. Auch hier waren es ursprünglich reiche Einwandererfamilien aus Portugal und Italien, die ihre höfischen Traditionen mit in die „neue Welt“ nahmen.

Als im 18. Jahrhundert Arbeiter und Bauern die steifen Bälle nachahmten und parodierten,  kam schon mehr Leben in die Angelegenheit, aber erst mit der Emanzipation der schwarzen Bevölkerung im 20. Jahrhundert und vor allem der Akzeptanz ihrer aus Westafrika importierten Tänze und Rhythmen, hob der Karneval von Rio so richtig ab. Heute gilt er als größte Party der Welt, etwa eine Million Touristen kommen in die Stadt, um dabei zu sein. 600 unterschiedliche Straßenpartys  oder „blocos“ steigen  bis zum Aschermittwoch, Höhepunkt ist der Wettstreit der Sambaschulen im „Sambodrome“, der auch live im Fernsehen übertragen wird. Gut 4.000 Tänzer und Musiker nehmen an dieser Sause teil – pro Schule!

Melancholie der Masken

Beinahe beschaulich geht es dagegen bei Europas berühmtesten Faschingsfeierlichkeiten zu, dem Carnevale in Venedig. Keine Trommeln, keine nackte Haut – dafür  melancholische Masken und historische Gewänder. Was den Publikumsansturm anbelangt, herrscht allerdings beinahe noch mehr Gedränge als in Rio oder New Orleans: 130.000 Besucher pro Tag bringen die Kapazität der romantischen schmalen Gassen an ihre Grenzen. Zum Vergleich: Die komplette Altstadt Venedigs hat nur etwas mehr als 50.000 Einwohner. Die es – wenn es ihnen möglich ist – vermeiden, an den Wochenenden vor dem Faschingsdienstag auf die Straße zu gehen.

Wer steckt dann eigentlich in den wunderschönen Kostümen? Hauptsächlich Touristen, die etwas von der Magie spüren wollen, die Casanova & Co dazu gebracht haben, fast das ganze Jahr Masken zu tragen. Erst die Österreicher machten mit dem Zauber Schluss, als sie die Stadt im frühen 19. Jahrhundert beherrschten.

Und ja, doch, natürlich feiern die Venezianer auch Fasching. Als was sie sich verkleiden? Harry Potter, Wonder Woman, Jedi-Ritter – nicht anders als  Faschingsnarren in Köln oder Villach.  In diesem Sinne: Alaf, Helau und Lei-Lei!

70
Während der letzten zwölf Tage vor dem Faschingsdienstag rollen beim Mardi Gras 70 Paraden durch New Orleans. Ebenso groß ist die Zahl der Faschingsgilden oder „Krewes“.

12.000
Jede Gilde wirft beim Mardi Gras Geschenke in die Menge. 12.000 Tonnen, also 12 Mio. Kilogramm,  ist das geschätzte Gewicht der Plastikperlen, die geworfen werden. Dazu kommen Kuscheltiere, Klopapierrollen, Süßigkeiten und – äußerst begehrt – Kokosnüsse.

587
Nicht nur die große Parade lockt Zuschauer aus aller Welt zum Karneval in Rio. Überall gibt es „blocos“, Partys mit Live-Musik. Genau 587 waren es im vergangenen Jahr. Die größte heißt  „Cordão Da Bola Preta“ und wird von 1 Million Menschen besucht.

80.500
Das Sambodrome von Rio wurde 1983 extra für die Paraden erbaut. Mit 80.500 sitzplätzen bietet es mehr Zuschauern Platz als die meisten Fußballstadien und wurde von Star-Architekt Oscar Niemeyer entworfen. 

3.600
„Ballo del Doge“ heißt der exklusivste Ball der Faschingssaison in Venedig.  Das Super-VIP-Ticket hat mit 3.600 Euro einen stolzen Preis, das billigste (ohne Dinner) mit 960 Euro auch.

34
Die Stadtregierung macht sich Sorgen ob des ständig wachsenden Besucherstromes in Venedig. 34 neue Kameras sollen Besucher zählen und helfen, potenziell gefährliches Gedränge möglichst schnell aufzulösen